[36] While al-Hariri was away, the Committee used the opportunity to undertake a purge of about 30 elite officersmostly political independentsunder al-Hariri's command. By then, Mughniyeh was dead. Bidens bombing of Iraq and Syria: the normalization of war. Attacking a hot reactor was liable to create tremendous environmental pollution. This system created a class society reflecting urban-rural living patterns. In the course of the examination, the researchers identified the Cube. The Turks were not happy, but they decided not to make an issue of it, apparently in part because of their retrospective realization that a threat to them was also inherent in Assads secret project. The Mossad intelligence division distributed a document with an assessment to that effect in February 2004. It is a plutogenic reactor, the head of the Mossad told Prime Minister Ehud Olmert. An extensive process of preparation got underway in the IDF. This was a breathtaking drama, and unfortunately it played out in front of the top military commanders.. [1] [2] References ^ "Top Syrian general declares defection on Al Arabiya". The military committee decided it had to capture al-Kiswah and Qatana, two military camps, seize control of the 70th Armoured Brigade at al-Kiswah, the Military Academy in the city of Homs and the Damascus radio station. I meet with him as a matter of course. The operation was approved unanimously and at the armys recommendation the limited air attack option was chosen. Then, even if Livni were to replace him as prime minister, Barak would lead the Syria operation and take all the credit. And then you get to the target area, climb a bit higher, pulling into execution mode. So why was it chosen? It is especially surprising that this is also the story of a secret that was maintained for a long time here in Israel despite the considerable personal interests of a number of those who are now involved in its publication. The differences of opinion between Olmert and Barak on the matter of the reactor became evident relatively quickly. In mid-June, Olmert arrived in the United States for a meeting with Bush. The group was successful, and they promised al-Hariri that "If we succeed, you can become chief of staff. Today that same Soleimani commands Irans military moves in the Middle East, including the basing of the Shiite militias in southern Lebanon, the next front where Israel is likely to find itself acing Syria and Iran. [1] The issue of water sharing from the JordanYarmuk system turned out to be a major problem between Israel, Syria and Jordan. The ninth communique reinstated the five members of the military committee in the armed forces. A Russian defence ministry spokesman said an equipment depot, a training building, a mess, six Syrian Air Force MiG-23s in repairing hangars, as well as a radar station were destroyed. However, the Military Committee, which had expanded its membership with five new members[note 1], ensured that the Ba'athists controlled the real levers of powers. Very quickly, it was given a name: the Cube. There, his deputy had already convened the men of the General Staff. They were concerned about the possibility of a blunder that could develop from mistaken intelligence information, as had happened to the Americans in the affair of the weapons of mass destruction (that were not found) on the eve of the Iraq War in 2003. If a certain weapon or one of the platforms didnt work, there would be something to cover for it, says Amir. And before that, at the end of 2008 and beginning of 2009, came the Israeli military operation known as Cast Lead against Hamas in Gaza. The Nasserist officers were also given notable offices with Muhammad al-Sufi becoming Minister of Defence and Rashid al-Qutayni becoming deputy chief of staff. In a one-on-one conversation Olmert tried to resolve their differences of opinion, but according to him Barak continued to try to convince ministers that a premature bombing of the reactor would cost Israel a war. "[27] From that day, Umran gave the civilians a faint idea of what the committee members were planning. Even the liberal and democratic-inclined founding leaders were partial to forceful takeover, citing the corrupt electoral process. In early November 2015, just over a month after launching an air campaign against Mr Assad's opponents, the Russian military reportedly began using Shayrat as a forward operating base for Mi-24 and Mi-35 attack helicopters. While the conspirators of the military committee were all young, the sitting regime had been slowly disintegrating and the traditional elite had lost effective political power.[20]. Shkedi emerged from the control booth [in the command post] only after the planes were out of the range of danger. Gradually, it became clear that there were three competing approaches within the administration, and that the president was trying to choose among them. Subscribe here for top stories and breaking news straight to your inbox. Only now, more than a decade later, has the military censor allowed the Israeli media to report the history of this affair and even that, still with restrictions. The new defense minister believed that before any attack on the reactor, the IDF had to be 98 percent prepared, not 80 percent., With the approach of summer, temperatures inside the conference rooms also rose. At the time, the officer corps was split into five different factions; the Damascus faction which supported the Syrian Government, supporters of Akram al-Hawrani, a Nasserist faction, a Ba'athist faction and a group of independents. Saber Falhout, a Druze who was later known as "the poet of the revolution", wrote and announced the first communique of the plotters. Rescue workers said many children were among those killed or injured in the suspected chemical attack in Idlib. Then, he in fact presented opposite arguments: Suddenly there wasnt a problem in rushing to bomb, even though an attack in Iran was a far greater challenge than bombing in Syria. If we fail, you can disown us. Before successful strike, Israel's most resounding intel failure. At times, Barak told someone, he had the feeling that Olmert was playing the role of a leader based on what he had seen in American movies. The airbase was used to store chemical weapons until 2013, when Mr Assad agreed to the destruction of the country's declared chemical arsenal after his forces were accused of firing rockets filled with the nerve agent Sarin at rebel-held suburbs of Damascus, killing hundreds of people. In the Israeli defense establishment, the concern was that if the diplomatic channel were employed, Assad was liable to position anti-aircraft batteries near the reactor or even to establish something like a kindergarten there as a human shield. The prime minister was also afraid of a leak to the media by American officials who opposed an Israeli attack. This is the story of a single night more than a decade ago, and a daring, hair-raising operation executed by the Israeli air force, army and intelligence community that destroyed an atomic plant in northeastern Syria. [29] Assad became the de facto head of the Syrian Air Force, a dizzying promotion for a man in his thirties. The spokesman also described the effectiveness of the US strike as "extremely low", saying only 23 missiles had reached Shayrat. Satellite imagery obtained by Stratfor that December showed construction work to improve the airbase. The disagreement between them was a meeting between a certified lightweight who had never approved any real operational planning (Olmert) and a professional who had engaged in that for decades, from the days of Sayeret Matkal (the elite commando force Barak had led), and up through the weekly discussions on operations and incursions in the defense ministers and the chief of staffs offices (Barak). This became a source of outcry across Syria and numerous intellectuals began highlighting the new regime's sectarian character through media outlets and publications. Syrian Nuclear Reactor Strike: Battle of the Memoirs, U.S. intelligence's presentation about the Syrian nuclear reactor. So why was it chosen? Olmerts behavior toward top people in the defense establishment seemed too folksy to him too much hugging and backslapping, not enough considered judgment. Explore in 3D: The dazzling crown that makes a king. The majority of Syrians continued to see themselves as Arabs rather than Syrians. There is a bit of excitement before the bomb hits. The Syrian pro-opposition website, Orient News, meanwhile said the jet's pilot had been identified as the commander of an Su-22 squadron at Shayrat. [13] While the Ba'ath Party was strong, its decision to recruit members from across society led to tribalism and clientelism within the party. Bibi, he said to his veteran opponent, its at midnight tonight. Netanyahu wished him success and said, I will react in accordance with the circumstances. Olmert, like Ashkenazi, stressed the need for secrecy after the attack as well. Olmert stayed in his office to work. Later, six civilians were given membership in NCRC, three Ba'athists (Aflaq, al-Bitar and Mansur al-Atrash) and three Nasserists. The dilemma Israel faced with respect to the choice between effectiveness and secrecy did not end with the question of the operation itself. However, while their powers were weakened, the traditional elite retained the majority of the wealth produced. Olmert did not ask Bush for authorization of an Israeli attack but let the president understand that he was of a mind to order the IDF to act. Covering about 10 sq km (4 sq miles), it has two 3km-long (2 mile) runways, as well as dozens of hangars, buildings and storage facilities. Everything happens within a few seconds. After mulling everything over, and at the advice of former Chief of Staff Amnon Lipkin-Shahak, Olmert decided to share the sensitive new information about Syria with the Americans. According to various reports at the time, Mughniyehs friend General Suleiman had no kinder a fate. The revolution was led by an anti-oligarchical alliance of a radicalised lower middle class, strategic members of the officer corps, marginalised minorities and a significant number of peasants who were mobilised for agrarian conflict. WebCNN . After the coup, the Ba'athist Military committee initiated a series of purges that altered the structure of the Syrian armed forces; by replacing 90% of its officer corps with Alawites. A quiet and relatively clandestine action would probably be perceived in Syria less emotionally but in such a case, there would be no certainty that the nuclear threat had been eradicated. The 1963 Syrian coup d'tat, referred to by the Syrian government as the 8 March Revolution (Arabic: ), was the successful seizure of power in Syria by the military committee of the Syrian Regional Branch of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party. The air force dubbed the plan with the code name Soft Melody (the general staff operation had a different code name, Ein Habasor, while at Military Intelligence they referred to the preparations as Outside the Box). Why Now? Russia said the Syrian jets had hit a rebel depot full of chemical munitions, but Mr Trump said "there can be no dispute that Syria used banned chemical weapons". WebThe US bombed Syria on Friday, April 13, 2018, in retaliation for the Assad regimes use of chemical weapons. [a] The committee enlisted the support of two Nasserists, Rashid al-Qutayni and Muhammad al-Sufi, and the independent Ziad al-Hariri. [4] Agricultural revenues were highly skewed the top two percent of the population received 50 percent of the income, while the middle class (merchants or middle landowning groups), which was 18 percent of the population, earned 25 percent of agricultural revenues. [6], The mandate was dissolved in 1946 because of a British ultimatum to France, and Syria became an independent country on 17 April 1946. As head of the Bureau of Officers' Affairs, Jadid appointed friends to senior positions, purged his enemies and appointed several Ba'athists to senior positions. The war and the investigations revealed hugs gaps in the armys capabilities and the readiness of its units. The detailed intelligence helped convince those countries of the justice of the Israeli move and neutralized the possibility that the attack would become the cause of an international scandal. The runway, taxiways and aircraft at parking places were not damaged, he added. General Mohammed Suleiman, commander of the Syrian shadow army, was the contact person for the Revolutionary Guard Corps leaders and for Imad Mughniyeh, who headed Hezbollahs terrorism effort. Picture taken from a U.S. intelligence presentation. [22] The military committee ordered a group of junior officers to recruit the leading independent Colonel Ziad al-Hariri, the commander of the front facing Israel, to their cause. Everyone there is jumping up and down in excitement, like in a Hollywood movie. [25], On the night of 78 March, tanks and units loyal to the conspiracy began moving on Damascus. In the meantime, final preparations were under way in the air force. Syrian President Bashar al-Assad has denied ever having used chemical weapons. On July 13, Bush informed Olmert in a conversation over the direct and secure red phone line between the White House and the Prime Ministers Office in Jerusalem that he opposed a military attack on the reactor. The Alawites, the Druzes and the Isma'ilis for instance, were religious groups with low social class who began to embrace a radical form of Arab nationalism, e.g. Mostly it went according to plan, but not everything. Amir says he never told his wife about that night in eastern Syria. Historians in the future who will examine the minutes of those discussions wont know what to do with this dissonance., In contrast, however, another senior officer says: Had a war with Syria indeed broken out following the bombing and had the IDF been caught unprepared again, Barak was liable to have finished like Moshe Dayan after the Yom Kippur War. He was a far more formidable opponent than al-Kudsi, and the Iraqi Regional Branch managed to take power through an alliance not only with military officers, but also with segments of the middle class. The secret mine that hid the Nazis' stolen treasure. The material left no room for doubt: The plutogenic reactor that Y. had written about did indeed exist it had been found in the heart of the desert and was in advanced stages of construction, and nearing completion. On December 19, 2003, a Saturday morning, I turned on the radio and heard on a news broadcast that the Americans and the British had persuaded Libya to dismantle its nuclear program, says Amnon Sufrin, who was then head of the intelligence division at the Mossad. VideoThe secret mine that hid the Nazis' stolen treasure, LGBT troops take love for Eurovision to front line, Why an Indian comedian is challenging fake news rules. Rights groups have said the suspected Russian bombing of chicken farms and water stations in Idlib, one of Syria's last rebel-held areas, is meant to push out displaced locals. These are discussions that none of the participants will ever forget, says one of the cabinet ministers. USS Shamal (PC-13) is the thirteenth Cyclone -class patrol ship. It certainly started as an uprising of Syrian citizens. The military committee, which would launch the 8 March Revolution, shared most of their views. Gates was pretty much in shock. The prime ministers two close advisers, Yoram Turbovich and Shalom Turgeman, flew to Washington to brief top administration people. The Mossad led several overseas operations as part of that intelligence gathering. Olmert and Bush in Washington, D.C., 2007. [39] Unsuccessful, he left the country for France in a self-imposed exile on 8 July. In one plane, a problem was solved, after [it had become clear that] not all the systems were working. [42] Nasser also announced his withdrawal from the 17 April unity agreement.[40][42]. At the cabinet meeting, Ashkenazi presented the various alternatives and recommended attacking. Ahmad Suwaydani, one of the new members of the Military Committee, was appointed Head of Military Intelligence and Mazyad Hunaydi became Head of the Military Police. The extremist organization has not held territory in Syria since 2019, but it continues to represent a threat with sleeper cells, mostly hiding in Syrias expansive desert. The material was analyzed on a Wednesday night, recalls Amnon Sufrin. Major Y., a researcher in MIs technology branch, composed a document headed An Issue for Examination. This is a well-known procedure in MI whereby, with the approval of the head of the organization and the head of the research division, a researcher is permitted to publish a dissenting assessment, even if it is not accepted by the chain of command, in order to prompt examination of a new hypothesis. Two explosive devices attached to the vehicle blew up as it passed under Jisr Both of us were very excited. This small and secret coterie headed by Suleiman was directly subordinate to the president; in Israel it was called the shadow army.. There was successful cooperation here among the intelligence organizations and between us and the government. Now, a Haaretz investigation goes behind the scenes of the 2007 strike on 'The Cube,' shortly before it became an active nuclear reactor: From the intelligence failures and American foot-dragging, to the arguments at the top levels and the threats of a total war with Syria. According to reports in the American media, his assassination was a join Mossad-CIA operation in revenge for Mughniyehs role in hijacking a TWA airliner in Beirut in 1985, and for attacking U.S. Marines in Lebanon two years earlier. Ba'athism. Each of us solved things in his own cockpit, after dilemmas and misgivings. The PM hoped that the U.S. would take it upon itself to destroy the reactor. The first involved many planes and could have ensured swift and very nearly certain destruction of the reactor, but it would leave behind a large footprint and was liable to spur the Syrians to a harsh response. To hear opinions from individuals beyond the heads of the military and the intelligence communities, Olmert consulted (as did then-Defense Minister Amir Peretz, separately) other experienced people and external oversight teams. The prime minister chose to ignore this suggestion. Ultimately, however, the bombing of the reactor would not have happened without three people who believed in the mission and pushed the operation forward, unstintingly, throughout: Prime Minister Ehud Olmert, Mossad chief Meir Dagan and Israel Air Force commander Eliezer Shkedi., >> Ten years of silence on Syria strike. [26] Later that morning, the coupmakers convened at the army headquarters to celebrate. People realized that there was something bigger here. Between June and September, the operational planning became more detailed, additional precise information about the destination came in, different methods of action were assembled and finally the crews were slotted into the operation. Video, The secret mine that hid the Nazis' stolen treasure, MasterChef Australia host Jock Zonfrillo dies, Trevelyan relative 'would consider' famine payment, Four dead after suspected pigeon racer dispute, Ding becomes China's first male world chess champion, UK chip giant Arm files for blockbuster share sale, Adidas sued by investors over Kanye West deal, US principal visits David sculpture after nudity row. birmingham police department staff, itv ceo email address, how much time did dj quik daughter get,
3 Bedroom Houses For Rent In Rockford, Il, Does Jeffrey Harrington Die On The Haves And Have Nots, Articles S